The Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy. Can it be Treated? | OOLS |

Dr. Chinmay Nakhwa, a practicing retinal surgeon, begins with an overview of diabetes and its effects on the retina. He warns us about the growing epidemic of diabetes and the ophthalmic problems related to diabetes. He briefly mentions the risk factors for diabetic retinopathy, enlisted below:

1. Duration of diabetes (5:40)

2. Glycemic control (6:13)

3. Hypertension (6:26)

4. Dyslipidemia (6:49)

5. Pregnancy (7:28)

6. Nephropathy (7:45)


Dr. Nakhwa specifies the ocular implication of diabetes, which includes cataracts, DR, and diabetic macular edema (DME). He walks us through the stages of DR and explains the use of angiography for diagnosis. We learn the importance and urgency of treating proliferative DR. The following stages were covered in detail:

1. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (15:15)

2. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (16:27)

3. Clinically significant macular edema (CSME) (19:53)

4. Advanced diabetic eye disease (20:30)


As practitioners, Dr. Nakhwa recommends that we perform adequate retinal screening to catch the at-risk patient before functional vision loss occurs. Early screening can prevent vision loss, and sometimes vision loss may also be reversed if treatment is received early. He talks about how optometrist can screen for diabetes using different cameras. Following is a list of all the different types of cameras that are now available:

1. Table-top cameras (26:00)

2. Non-mydriatic cameras (27:54)

3. Handheld cameras (28:25)

4. Smartphone-based cameras (30:00)


Lastly, we understand in brief the different forms of treatment for DR. Primarily, the use of different types of laser treatments and when each type is used clinically. He mentions that the current mainstay of treatments is Anti-VEGF injections, and we discuss the pros and cons. We learn the most advanced treatment options. The last form of treatment is surgery, and the different reasons for undergoing surgery are enlisted. We also see a video of vitrectomy in action to understand the process better. This session is followed by an interesting Q and A session with the live audience.


References: https://bit.ly/3ccEfI4


Watch the complete session below:


Online Optom Learning Series(OOLS) is managed by S.K. Optics.

OOLS is accredited by:

Optometry Council Of India (OOLS)

Integrated Philippine Association of Optometrist (IPAO)

Philippine Society of Public Health and Occupational Optometry (PSPHOO)

Optometry Vietnam

Education Supported by:

SEGi University

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